It may be necessary to seek help from a consultant, a university partner, or simply someone with research experience to help identify a design that fits your needs.
A control group design is usually the most difficult to set up — you have to find appropriate groups, observe both on a regular basis, etc. They emphasize the importance of observation, the need to retain the phenomenological quality of the evaluation context, and the value of subjective human interpretation in the evaluation process.
Some specific reasons for spending the time to design your evaluation carefully include: Even looking at something as seemingly simple to measure pre and post as blood pressure in a heart disease prevention program is questionable.
Threats to internal validity These are threats or alternative explanations to your claim that what you did caused changes in the direction you were aiming for. In formative research the major questions and methodologies are: We have to keep them in mind as we look at some common research designs.
Community Toolbox Curriculum Module Use any and all of these to find what will work best for you.
Like any experiment, a program or intervention has to be evaluated to see whether it works and under what conditions.
Graduate students generally take courses to gain the knowledge they need to conduct research well, and even some veteran researchers have difficulty setting up an appropriate research design.
Consider your resources Strategic planners often advise that groups and organizations consider resources last: It may also be a matter of chance: A good example is that of employment training programs that get paid according to the number of people they place in jobs.
In other words, you have to create a design for your research — or evaluation — to give you clear answers to your questions. There are other reasons that participants might object to observation, or at least intense observation.
This refers to the natural physical, psychological, and social processes that take place as time goes by. You could also try different methods or time sequences, to see which works best. It can involve leaps forward and leaps backward before it gets to a stable place — if it ever does.
How well is the program or technology delivered? Consider your time constraints As we mentioned above, the important thing here is to choose a design that will give you reasonably reliable information.
Two or more of these factors may combine to produce or prevent the changes your program aims to produce. Before we go any further, it is helpful to have an understanding of some basic research terms that we will be using in our discussion.
Four major groups of evaluation strategies are discussed here. While they contain too much material to summarize here, there are some basic designs that we can introduce. Third, if there is progress, how do you know it was caused by or contributed to your program, and not by something else?A literature review is a critical and in depth evaluation of previous research.
It is a summary and synopsis of a particular area of research, allowing anybody reading the paper to establish why you are pursuing this particular research. Principles of Research Design and Drug Literature Evaluation is an ideal foundation for professional pharmacy students and a key resource for pharmacy residents, research fellows, practitioners, and clinical researchers/5(6).
What type of evaluation design do I need? methods including: a review of the literature on tutoring strategies and outcomes, focus groups with teachers, surveys of parents, and interviews with a cross-section of Study Designs for Program Evaluation. Research Methods is a text by Dr. Christopher L.
Heffner that focuses on the basics of research design and the critical analysis of professional research in the social sciences from developing a theory, selecting subjects, and testing subjects to performing statistical analysis and writing the research report.
However, you can get a sense of what to do by reviewing the literature of studies that have utilized the same research design. This can provide an outline to follow for your own paper.
NOTE: To search for scholarly resources on specific research designs and methods, use the SAGE Research Methods Online and Cases database.
Principles of Research Design and Drug Literature Evaluation is a unique resource that provides a balanced approach covering critical elements of clinical research, biostatistical principles, and scientific literature evaluation techniques for evidence-based medicine/5(6).Download