Trade in Asian goods and fabrics had a profound effect on the economic, political, diplomatic and social spheres in Europe. He was the first to explore much of Arabia; he traveled extensively in India; he reached Java and Southeast Asia.
The Polos then accepted an invitation to accompany a party of Tatar envoys returning to the court of Kublai Khan at Cambaluc, near Peking Beijing. In 15th-century Europe, the existence of ancient and powerful civilizations in Asia was broadly accepted, though dependable knowledge about them was scarce.
But the Indians could improve only under the guidance of the politically and religiously superior Europeans. This also involved geographical, geological and other discoveries, as knowledge of the shape and layout of the world and the location of resources entered the Western consciousness.
The European nations began to colonize and expand their territory across Africa, Asia, and the newfound Americas. But the stereotype was also supported by writings which purported to be more scientific. After the initial Portuguese involvement on the Atlantic coastEuropean involvement in sub-Saharan Africa was later maintained by the French and, in particular, by the British, who dominated African trade during the 18th century.
The discoveries were no less important from a European perspective, but encounters there — which were the starting point of longstanding relationships — were primarily with populous, highly advanced, powerful countries.
Stories survive of a few men who are credited with bringing new knowledge from distant journeys. Furthermore, these encounters were influenced to a greater extent by European knowledge and attitudes which had developed over centuries.
This expansion in turn played a major role in the many other transformations—social, political, and cultural—of the early modern age. This time the Polos took a different route: While the Portuguese had more success than others in establishing themselves as a maritime power in Asia, the experiences of the first three centuries of renewed contact with Asia taught Europeans that Asian civilizations were perfectly capable of rivalling the Western newcomers.
Colonies and trading posts turned into great cities like present day Calcutta. Defining the Native Americans as the offspring of Japhet, Acosta suggested that they had probably migrated to the Americas via an as yet unknown passage in northeast Asia.
During the 18th and the 19th centuries, Eurocentric thinking further developed pre-existing ideas of European racial, cultural, scientific and technological superiority. In Safawid PersiaMughal India, and especially in Qing China, the degree of political and administrative organization, the economic resources, population sizes, architecture and urban centres, as well as the technological and manufacturing skills, and cultural and artistic refinement were on a par with — or surpassed — anything in Europe.
Up to that point, the continuing influence of ancient Greek sources meant that the predominant concept of Asia was of ancient, refined and wealthy civilizations, dominated by centralized imperial monarchies with despotic forms of government.
The societies and cultures which Europeans encountered in the Caribbean and in continental North and South America were generally viewed as "savagery".
Slavery apologists went so far as to maintain that Africans were destined to be victims of Arab slave-traders or despotic local rulers, and would thus be better off under European masters.
Asia was perceived as a more or less undifferentiated land mass where, for mainly climatic and environmental reasons, political despotism, slavery and heretical and idolatrous religions dominated immutable societies. The very different Civility of Europe and of China; the barbarism of Persia and Abyssinia, the erratic manners of Tartary, and of Arabia.
As Roman power grew, increasing wealth brought increasing demands for Oriental luxuries; this led to great commercial activity in the eastern seas.
Alexander and his army crossed the mountains to the Indus valley and then made a westward march from the lower Indus to Susa through the desolate country along the southern edge of the Iranian plateau; Nearchushis admiral, in command of the naval forces of the expedition, waited for the favourable monsoon and then sailed from the mouth of the Indus to the mouth of the Euphrates, exploring the northern coast of the Persian Gulf on his way.
In Europe, such encounters with "otherness" led to attempts to explain and interpret the origins and nature of racial and cultural linguistic, religious and social diversity.
Financial crashes were common; the Spanish crown, the heaviest borrower in Europe, suffered repeated bankruptcies in—77,and This era of colonialism established mercantilism as the leading school of economic thought, where the economic system was viewed as a zero-sum game in which any gain by one party required a loss by another.
Merchants, entrepreneursand bankers accumulated and manipulated capital in unprecedented volume. To Europeans, their social life seemed to lack rules and conventions for regulating sexual intercourse and family relationships.
Firstly, there was the Atlantic basin from the Atlantic islands and coastal western Africa to the central areas of the American continent. Thus, two contrasting attitudes emerged. They were clearly not fully human beings and had to be subjected to a superior political authority, which would bring them the blessings of European and Christian order.
The Arabs, most successful of all, dominated eastern sea routes from the 3rd to the 15th century. These events directly challenged the long-held notion of an immutable universe supported by Ptolemy and Aristotleand led to major revolutions in astronomy and science.European expansion in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries were led by the three main motives of God, glory, and gold.
Books such as "Travels of John.
Expansion of European Empires - The major theme of Module Three is the rapid expansion of European empires during the 15th and 16th centuries and its eventual impact on the African slave trade. European Expansion In The 16Th Century. ENGLİSGH LİTERATURE IN THE 15TH AND 16TH CENTURIES Social, political, cultural, religious, and historical background The fifteenth and sixteenth centuries are the period of the European Renaissance or four great transforming movement of European history.
This impulse by which the medieval. European exploration: European exploration of Earth, beginning about the 4th century BCE. From the time of the earliest recorded history to the beginning of the 15th century, The English colonization of North America was but one chapter in the larger story of European expansion throughout the globe.
The Portuguese, beginning with a. History of Europe - The emergence of modern Europe, – The 16th century was a period of vigorous economic expansion. This expansion in turn played a major role in the many other transformations—social, political, and cultural—of the early modern age.
By the population in most areas of Europe was increasing after two centuries of decline or stagnation. The Expansion of Europe. The Expansion of Europe. From the 15th through 17th centuries, Europe sought to expand its power and riches through a rigorous exploration of the world.
European Expansion: This map illustrates the main travels of the Age of Discovery, from The travel routes spanned between Europe and the eastern coast of.Download