Discuss the psychological and physical effects

Many drugs have the potential to cause cardiovascular issueswhich Discuss the psychological and physical effects range from increased heart rate and blood pressure to aberrant cardiac rhythms and myocardial infarction i. Lipolysis is the process of breaking down fats into usable sources of energy i.

Nevertheless, by emphasizing the role that chronic stressors may play in multiple disease outcomes, McEwen has helped to emphasize an important area of study. Energy is then distributed to the organs that need it most by increasing blood pressure levels and contracting certain blood vessels while dilating others.

Elevated levels of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein CRPare predictive of heart attacks, even when controlling for other traditional risk factors e.

Psychiatric morbidity following Hurricane Andrew. However, when compared with individuals facing similar disability who do not have MS e. Social stress and state-to-state differences in smoking-related mortality in the United States.

The Physical Effects of Long-Term Stress

Energy is diverted to the tissues that become more active during stress, primarily the skeletal muscles and the brain. Much of the risk gradient in CHD can be eliminated, however, by taking into account lack of perceived job control, which is a potent stressor Marmot et al.

Variations in Stress Responses Certain characteristics of a situation are associated with greater stress responses. During periods of chronic stress, in the otherwise healthy individual, cortisol eventually suppresses proinflammatory cytokine production. These are an excellent option for people who cannot take time away from home, but they do require a higher level of self-motivation to maintain abstinence because the home environment is often rife with triggers to use.

We have also described how psychosocial stressors influence mental health and how psychosocial treatments may ameliorate both mental and physical disorders. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is what clinicians use to determine if a person is struggling with a substance use disorder SUDand among its diagnostic criteria are several characteristic psychosocial and behavioral changes that addicted individuals often exhibit, such as: This risk particularly is linked to people who tend to be excessively competitive, impatient, hostile, and move and talk quickly.

Inpatient treatment is a great way to escape the stressors and triggers of everyday life and focus entirely on recovery. Possible connections between stress, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and altered lipoprotein metabolism that may result in atherosclerosis. Craving is an effect of drug addiction whereby the addict is obsessed with obtaining and using the drug, to the exclusion of all else.

Attaching meaning to the event is another protective factor against the development of PTSD, even when horrific torture has occurred. At a societal level, we face a lack of institutional resources e.

STRESS AND HEALTH: Psychological, Behavioral, and Biological Determinants

Psychosocial interventions, such as cognitive-behavioral stress management CBSMhave a positive effect on the quality of life of patients with chronic disease Schneiderman et al.

Stress is associated with more swelling and reduced mobility in rheumatoid arthritis patients Affleck et al. However, if the threat is unremitting, particularly in older or unhealthy individuals, the long-term effects of stressors can damage health.

Granted, MS patients face a number of stressors and reports of depression are not surprising. A Th2 shift has the effect of suppressing cellular immunity in favor of humoral immunity.

This is particularly the case if the person has few psychosocial resources and poor coping skills.Psychological effects of maltreatment/abuse include the dysregulation of affect, provocative behaviors, the avoidance of intimacy, and disturbances in attachment (Haviland et al.Lowenthal ).

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) has a direct role in physical response to stress and is divided into the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS).

When the body is stressed, the SNS generates what is known as the "fight or flight" response. CHAPTER Stress, Psychological Factors, and Health CHAPTER OUTLINE This chapter focuses on the psychological and physical effects of stress. In the next chapter, we discuss the types of psychological disorders that can arise from exposure to traumatic stress.

The Psychological Effects of Incarceration: On the Nature of Institutionalization The adaptation to imprisonment is almost always difficult and, at times, creates habits of thinking and acting that can be dysfunctional in periods of post-prison adjustment.

Physical and Psychological Effects of Substance Use SUBSTANCE [and method of use] PHYSICAL/PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS Alcohol Alcohol abuse is a pattern of problem drinking that results in health consequences, social, problems, or both.

However, alcohol dependence. Effects of Drug Addiction (physical and psychological) Natasha Tracy The definition of drug addiction refers to the obsessive and repeated use of dangerous amounts of drugs and the appearance of withdrawal symptoms when not using drugs.

Discuss the psychological and physical effects
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